在第一次发行的四十年后, Oracle数据库仍然是最流行的数据库系统之一. Organizations around the world recognize the benefits and value it offers, 它的速度和易用性让它与众不同.
尽管它的好处, 大多数组织都很难理解Oracle的许可规则, 复杂的合同, 和不断变化的环境. This lack of understanding makes managing Oracle licenses extremely challenging and exposes your organization to operational, 财务及法律风险.
To help you stay on top of your Oracle Database software, you must understand the risks involved. 以下是10个最常见的Oracle数据库遵从性问题.
Every person accessing Oracle Database software typically requires a “Named User Plus license”. But independent of the actual number of individuals that use this software, Oracle requires a minimum number of Named User Plus licenses for the different database programs installed or used. 这个最小值对于每个Oracle数据库程序都是不同的, 经常变化, 每个版本不同, 用不同的方法计算. 确定这个最小值并不简单, but it’s essential to correctly manage and monitor the required number of Oracle Database software licenses.
Most organizations can count how many of their servers and cores are running Oracle. The struggle comes with bridging the gap between counting cores and correctly applying Oracle licensing rules to determine the actual number of licenses needed. The challenge is compounded when virtualization products and cloud services are added to the mix. A small miscalculation can lead to a shortage of licenses and unforeseen costs.
Oracle does not recognize VMware internal software controls as a valid method to reduce the number of Oracle licenses. 取决于VMware版本, 如果Oracle软件安装在一台服务器上, then it must be licensed for all other servers in the configuration even if Oracle is not actually used on the other servers. Oracle maintains that it has not changed its licensing policy on VMware but that the evolving capability of the Vmotion functionality in newer versions of Vsphere is the crux of the different licensing requirements for the different Vsphere versions. The most recent versions require Oracle licenses for all physical cores in all physical servers that are part of the Vmware farm. Non-compliance can generate a penalty in the millions of dollars for a large enterprise. Needed is full visibility on the location of deployed Oracle software and understanding of the underlying virtual server architecture.
4. 使用Oracle VM进行服务器虚拟化
Oracle鼓励使用自己的虚拟化软件Oracle VM. 这项技术限制了可授权的“核心”的数量。, but many organizations fail to remember that “peak use” (high-watermark) must be licensed.
更多的 and more companies choose to outsource their hardware infrastructure to specialized third parties. 尽管软件由外包商安装, the end user remains responsible and liable for the correct licensing of the Oracle software. 很容易失去对许可证数量的控制. The outsourcing company may conﬁgure redundancy solutions to ensure your software has a maximum uptime or chose the hardware infrastructure that installs or runs the software on multiple machines. Such results in noncompliance issues that you are solely responsible for, not the outsourcer.
Oracle database software programs must be licensed once the software is installed, 即使软件没有被使用. But many organizations have an incomplete or inaccurate overview of these Installations, usually because they lack the proper software inventory tooling and procedures. If you don’t know how many installations you have, you can’t manage and control usage.
安装Oracle数据库时, you have the option to install different components and products including various Database Options and Management Packs. Inadvertently deploying options and packs not included in your license is easy to do. 例如，Oracle的高级压缩产品有多个特性. 其中两个免费包含在您的数据库购买. However, several other features are not included and must also be licensed if used. Any inadvertent usage of those additional features will trigger a licensing event.
8. 内部和. 外部访问
The standard Oracle license agreement allows the use of Oracle programs for internal business purposes only. These licenses cannot be used by partners or any other outside entity unless your arrangement is addressed explicitly with customized contract language. 也, use of Oracle licenses to open commercial applications to third-party access requires special hosting licenses.
The purchase of an Oracle Database license is for the sole use of a pre-registered legal entity (or entity list). Some Oracle contracts make allowances with specific limitations on how to use Oracle licenses after a merger, 收购, 或剥离. 然而,米&A activity gets the attention of the Oracle LMS audit team because it is typically a compliance hotspot and license revenue opportunity for Oracle.
Actual usage of Oracle Database software is granted to an individual authorized by you to use the programs which are installed on a single server or multiple servers, regardless of whether the individual is actively using the programs at any given time. Even if you’ve created an account for a thousand people and only fifty people use it, 你仍然需要一千张执照. This means you need to pay close attention to who is accessing the software. 另外, you may need a separate license not only for people but also for devices that directly or indirectly access the database. 定期检查谁需要访问，谁不需要访问也很重要. 这不仅能帮你降低风险，还能帮你省钱.
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